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Excavation of Tsukimino-kamino site Loc.14

Excavation of Tsukimino-kamino site Loc.14_a0186568_21112024.jpg It is the one of lustrous excavation on Tsukimino sites in Japanese Upper Palaeolithic research history. In 1968-69, because of large-scale land development, Tsukimino sites, Yamato City, Kanagawa Pref. were faced to destruction. Then some young archaeologists formed investigation group and carried out rescue excavation at 10 localities. This project acieved large progress in chronology and spatial analysis in Japanese Upper Palaeolithic studies.
    aerial photo on Nov 1964                   aerial photo on Jun 1969
    (before land development)                   (under land development)
Excavation of Tsukimino-kamino site Loc.14_a0186568_23111921.jpgExcavation of Tsukimino-kamino site Loc.14_a0186568_23114174.jpg






















(from leaflet by Yamato City Board of Education)

Excavation of Tsukimino-kamino site Loc.14_a0186568_2150590.jpg The site, Tsukimino-kamino Loc.14 is situated in the series of Tsukimino sites location. The excavation is as rescue operation before construction of old folks home. The excavation area is around 1,000m2.
 After the excavation of black soil layers including from Jomon to modern age, Upper Palaeolithic investigation has began.

Excavation of Tsukimino-kamino site Loc.14_a0186568_2212430.jpg
 Lower yellowish layers beneath black soil lyaers are Tachikawa Loam (TcL) formation. This is upper to terminal Pleistocene tephric loess.



Excavation of Tsukimino-kamino site Loc.14_a0186568_22553066.jpg


 The left picture shows standard stratigraphy of the upper TcL. Archaeologically devided into 4 sub-divisions such as L1S, B0, L1H and B1 (from top to bottom). Supposed datings are also shown in this picture.
 This area (Sagamino upland) has most high-resolved stratigraphy in the upper TcL. The temporal sequence of industries is well-grasped and treated as standard for chronology of Japanese Late to Final Upper Palaeolithic.
 However there remain some problems...TcL is so consecutive formation that it is difficult to distinguish small units.

Excavation of Tsukimino-kamino site Loc.14_a0186568_2304252.jpg Also soil disturbance by bio- and clioturbation process must be reminded. The left picture shows primary condition of uncovered artefacts ( They are kept on primary 3-dimensional position until recorording with total station system). The range of vertical position is dispersed 30-80cm. So it is difficult to identify the original level of occupation.


Excavation of Tsukimino-kamino site Loc.14_a0186568_024196.jpgExcavation of Tsukimino-kamino site Loc.14_a0186568_0243396.jpgExcavation of Tsukimino-kamino site Loc.14_a0186568_024446.jpgExcavation of Tsukimino-kamino site Loc.14_a0186568_0245431.jpg








 However large number of excavation lead us to elucidate a trend on temporal sequences. Above pictures show typical assemblages from B2, B1 lower, B1 upper to L1H layer (from left to right) in Tsukimino sites. There are some typical tendency in changing of industry such as; typological change on backed blade and emergence of bifacial point (B2-B1 lower), increase of bifacial point and fall of backed blade (B1 lower-upper) and finally disappearance of backed blade.

Excavation of Tsukimino-kamino site Loc.14_a0186568_2323552.jpg Common procedure of excavation of Upper Palaeolithic sites is as following:
1) dig sounding pits (habitually set 2m square), 2) extend excavation area when artefatcs are uncovered, 3) carefully dig with shovel, however TcL is so tremendously hard that workers need to expertness, 4) keep artefacts in their primary position and record them in 3-dimensional with total station system, 5) dig down until nothing is uncovered...
 This is really hard work with endurance. Moreover in winter season!
 The researcher will spend 2 months for this excavation. For the mometn they find more than 10 lithic concentrations and some artefacts. This locality is situated among ather localities already excavated. It seems that those localities consist a large residential occupation in L1H layer with bifacial points. Raw material of bifacial points are different in each locality. It will be good indicators for mobility of human groups who occupied this site. It is anticipated that the analysis of spatial components of site is progress.

Tsukimino-kamino site Loc.14
(月見野遺跡群上野遺跡第14地点)
35.504°N, 139.458°E

by asiansophia | 2011-02-21 00:56 | Archaeology(English)